Why are Immunizations Important?
Most people want the best for their children and do their best to protect their children and keep them safe. Immunizations are one of the best ways to keep your child healthy.
With World Immunization Day, around the corner – 10th November, it is important to highlight why they’re important.
- Immunizations and Vaccinations are known to save lives. Several diseases are preventable through proper immunizations.
- Immunizations have proven to be extremely effective in making India polio-free.
- Vaccinations prevent both you and your child from serious illnesses including those which have no other direct medical treatments.
- Adults need immunizations too, determined on the basis of factors such as age, lifestyle, health conditions, previous vaccination history, etc.
- Statistics suggest that vaccinations and immunizations prevent an estimated 2.5 million deaths every year.
According to the WHO, Immunizations prevent illnesses, disability and death from vaccine-preventable diseases such as cervical cancer, diphtheria, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, pertussis (whooping cough), pneumonia, polio, rotavirus diarrhea, rubella and tetanus.
An estimated 19.4 million infants worldwide still miss out on basic vaccines.
The World Health Organization (WHO) instituted the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) as a roadmap to prevent millions of deaths through more equitable access to vaccines and close the immunization gap.
Video : World Immunization Day
More information here – Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020
The current Immunization Schedule for India (2016) per the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP) is as follows:
Administer these vaccines to all newborns before hospital discharge
· DTaP vaccine/combinations should preferably be avoided for the primary series
· DTaP vaccine/combinations should be preferred in certain specific circumstances/conditions only
· No need of repeating/giving additional doses of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine to a child who has earlier completed their primary schedule with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine-containing products
· All doses of IPV may be replaced with OPV if administration of the former is unfeasible
· Additional doses of OPV on all supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)
· Two doses of IPV instead of 3 for primary series if started at 8 weeks, and 8 weeks interval between the doses
· No child should leave the facility without polio immunization (IPV or OPV), if indicated by the schedule
· See footnotes under figure titled IAP recommended immunization schedule (with range) for recommendations on intradermal IPV
· 2 doses of RV1 and 3 doses of RV5 & RV 116E
· RV1 should be employed in 10 & 14 week schedule, 10 & 14 week schedule of RV1 is found to be more immunogenic than 6 & 10 week schedule
If RV1 is chosen, the first dose should be given at 10 weeks
· Only 2 doses of RV1 are recommended.
· If RV1 is chosen, the 2nd dose should be given at 14 weeks
Hepatitis-B: The final (3rd or 4th ) dose in the HepB vaccine series should be administered no earlier than age 24 weeks and at least 16 weeks after the first dose.
· Measles-containing vaccine ideally should not be administered before completing 270 days or 9 months of life;
· The 2nd dose must follow in 2nd year of life;
· No need to give stand-alone measles vaccine
Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine
· Currently, two typhoid conjugate vaccines, Typbar-TCV® and PedaTyph® available in Indian market; either can be used
· An interval of at least 4 weeks with the MMR vaccine should be maintained while administering this vaccine
|Hep-A 1|| |
· Single dose for live attenuated H2-strain Hep-A vaccine
· Two doses for all inactivated Hep-A vaccines are recommended
· The 2nd dose must follow in 2nd year of life
· However, it can be given at anytime 4-8 weeks after the 1st dose
Varicella: The risk of breakthrough varicella is lower if given 15 months onwards
|16 to 18 months|
|DTwP B1/DTaP B1|
The first booster (4thth dose) may be administered as early as age 12 months, provided at least 6 months have elapsed since the third dose.
· 1st & 2nd boosters should preferably be of DTwP
· Considering a higher reactogenicity of DTwP, DTaP can be considered for the boosters
|Hep-A 2|| |
Hepatitis A: 2nd dose for inactivated vaccines only
|Booster of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine|
· A booster dose of Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), if primary dose is given at 9-12 months
· A dose of Typhoid Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS) vaccine can be given if conjugate vaccine is not available or feasible;
· Revaccination every 3 years with Vi-polysaccharide vaccine
· Typhoid conjugate vaccine should be preferred over Vi- PS vaccine
|4 to 6 years|
DTwP B2/DTaP B2
Varicella: the 2nd dose can be given at anytime 3 months after the 1st dose.
MMR: the 3rd dose is recommended at 4-6 years of age.
|10 to 12 years|
Tdap: is preferred to Td followed by Td every 10 years
· Only 2 doses of either of the two HPV vaccines for adolescent/preadolescent girls aged 9-14 years;
· For girls 15 years and older, and immunocompromised individuals 3 doses are recommended
· For two-dose schedule, the minimum interval between doses should be 6 months.
· For 3 dose schedule, the doses can be administered at 0, 1-2 (depending on brand) and 6 months